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Club fitting will take into account several characteristics of the golf club when determining which club setup is for you. The main ones are as follows:
1. Length of club - This is very important on a couple of levels, one is that you want the proper length club so that you feel comfortable with it in your hand. You won't feel the need to choke up on the shaft or feel like you are reaching for the ball. The proper length of club also lets the club maker assemble your club to have the correct flex in the shaft. If you choke up on the club you are in essence moving the kick point which in turn stiffens the shaft. Think of a telephone pole, when the pole is long, it can sway in the wind, cut it shorter and it is extremely stiff.
2. Lie angle of the head - The lie angle of the head is important for accuracy. The lie angle affects the heel and toe of the head. If the club is too flat, the toe will hit first, too upright the heel hits first. You want the middle of the club, below the sweet spot to make contact with the ground first.
3. Flex of the shaft - This is determined by the club speed. Too flexible of a shaft makes accuracy a problem as the club head will not square up, too stiff of a shaft means distance problems as you will lose the power of the shaft in the swing because your speed will not be enough to get it to flex.
4. Loft issues - For some players, loft fitting becomes a factor. If you hit the ball too high, you may be told that you need stronger lofted clubs or low trajectory clubs, if you just dont get the ball up, you may be told that you need higher trajectory clubs. This is more of an advanced kind of fitting as most clubs can't be adjusted this way, they have to be cast or forged strong or weak. Some companies offer lines of clubs this way, usually designated as pro versions for lower trajectory, or ht for higher trajectory.
5. Grip fitting - The size of the grip is important if you have very big hands or very small hands, or arthritis or some other medical reason that needs to be addressed. This is usually determined by your glove size.